I decided to test whether I was able to recover data from one of the two RAID 1-configured disks installed in my Synology DS211j.
This article from Synology forum seems to provide some valuable information. Let's try it. On my PC running Linux Mint 17, I just have to install mdadm, lvm being already installed. Then I try the command described in the forum thread:
sudo mdadm --assemble --scan
And that's it: the disk is mounted and I can read files!